Tag Archives: Stockholm

Do you love H.P. Lovecraft?

Me, I’m a big Lovecraft buff and oddly enough it seems a lot of other archaeologists/anthropologists is as well. In Stockholm as in many cities there are free newspapers around, as Metro etc. Since I got my smart phone a few years back this is not a media I turn to too often, though I did when I was a student back in the days – all things free is good, or something like that.

Today going by the sub something caught my eye though, on the opposing seat lay a Metro and the headline, or rather the add, that caught my eye read: Vi älskar Lovecraft! – We love Lovecraft!

March 26- April 1st Serieteket, in Stockholm, gives tribute to the horror master – holding seminars, readings and what they call Bazaar of the Bizarre read more at Kulturhuset.se (OBS in Swedish).

Me – I’ll see you there!

Magnus Reuterdahl

Etruskerna 3D – Etruria 3D

Detta inlägg följer på Svenska

Today I visited the exhibit Etruria 3D at the Museum of Mediterranean and Near Eastern Antiquities in Stockholm. I’m sorry to say this exhibit wasn’t all that good. The 3D part worked on the stills but was a total waste on TV-screens. The other big, BIG, negative is that you need to get some kind of hearing aids/audio guide to understand the films, probably at an extra cost, this wasn’t mentioned when we bought the tickets, we neither go any info where to get them – as the exhibit is based on the audio guide and I didn’t have it, I didn’t get the exhibit at all – and I’m sorry to say for me it was a waste of money!

The new standard exhibit is nice though.

Etrurskerna 3D på medelhavsmuseet i Stockholm var tyvärr inte bra. Uppenbarligen måste man ha hörlurar för att få ut något av denna utställning, även som intresserad arkeolog, vilket det inte informerades om när man köpte biljetten. Detta inser man dock ganska fort då informationsskyltarna är få och filmerna tappar sin mening utan kommentarer. Jag antar att man kan hyra hörlurar och audioguide – men så som utställningen är utformad borde detta ingå i priset, dessutom hittade jag ingen information om var man fick tag i den (även om jag antar att de finns i kassan). 3D filmerna och 3-bilderna på digitala skärmar var mycket svåra att se mednågon skärpa i 3D glasögonen, de fungerade dock bra på de tryckta stillbilderna (dessutom fungerar inte 3D-glasögonen i kombination med glasögon). Personligen ser jag dock hellre fynden verkligheten, och framför allt ge mig vettiga informationsskyltar.

Tyvärr är känslan att man lagt ut 80 kronor i onödan och gör att jag tyvärr är riktigt besviken då jag lämnar utställningen – men jag vill dock framhålla att den nya grundutställningen är trevlig.

Vad gäller Etruskerna – gör om gör rätt – vilket i detta fall tyvärr betyder gör om i princip allt!

Magnus Reuterdahl

Pictures from da hood i.e. the nearby wood

If you ever wondered were I live this is it; the suburb Bergshamra.

Just a few minutes walk from my apartment in Stockholm I’m more or less in the wood and by the waterfront – yet I’m only a 10 – minute ride by the subway to down town Stockholm. Today we took a Sunday walk around the northern parts of Bergshamra down to the royal castle of Ulriksdal and home again.

Back in civilization again – only 13 days til Christmas and no snow in Stockholm!

Magnus Reuterdahl

Real world postPhD

Welcome Elin Fornander to the real world 🙂 and congratulations, just yesterday her thesis was printed and she got to hold it in her hands. The title is Consuming and communicating identities – Dietry diversity and interaction  in Middle Neolithic Sweden. It still has to be defended – but I share no fears it will go smoothly – now it is just the question of finding your place in the archaeological real world postPhD, best of luck (I share no fears here either).

I look forward to give it a good read through as I have high hopes for this next chapter in research regarding the Neolithic’s (and pitted ware culture) and will come back to the subject as I’ve read the thesis and after the dissertation.

Big congratulations to Elin

Magnus Reuterdahl

Evidence of olden day archaeology

Today I found an old envelope that gives evidence to the history of archaeology. On an envelope the address to a long gone 14C-laboratory is printed; Laboratoriet för radioaktiv datering Frescati, Stockholm 50.

I’m not quite sure how long it was opened for business though I know it was active during the 50’s, 60’s and 70’s and was used by archaeologists, it is mentioned several times in Fornvännen, for example in this issue from 1959, and the stamp on the envelope says 1977. So during that time span it was active – today it is no more, as far as I know – in other words a remain of olden day archaeology.

Magnus Reuterdahl

A few words on prehistoric and historic wine imports, etc.

Detta inlägg finns på svenska på min vinblogg Aqua Vitae (This post is a translation from Swedish that was originally posted at my wine blog Aqua Vitae)

The Stockholm wine puller guilds emblem

A few weeks ago I wrote about the discovery of a unique wine bottle, found on the sea bed of the Stockholm archipelago in the 1940s and was rediscovered in Vin- och Sprithistoriska museet (the Wine and Spirits Historical Museum) collections a couple weeks ago, read more here. Since then, I been reading up a little on Scandinavian wine imports in prehistoric and historic times, read about vindragarna (the wine pullers) and their guild here (in Swedish), and got hold of some information that I present below. This is but a few scattered notes.

An interesting detail that the Groot Constantia bottle tells us is that wine was imported by the bottle. I have previously thought wine to be primarily imported in barrels or the like and then bottled in this country before sale. There are several examples of this, for example in the archaeological record from the neighbourhoods Apeln and Diplomaten in the city Jönköping – where archaeologist found several shards from bottles and bottle seals made in the Björkenäs glass works on Värmdö (1736-1786), outside of Stockholm. Björknäs glass works made bottles for wine and spirits among other things. The excavation was made by Jönköping County museum a few years ago.

Groot Constanz wine bottle

Via the Wine and Spirits Historical Museum in Stockholm I got an article by Karen Hjort describing the family Schulin’s wine cellar during the 1700s. The article is based on documents from Frederiksdal castle archives in Denmark. The oldest list is from 1744 and  about 50 years older than the bottle found in the Stockholm archipelago. It runs through until 1808. Records show which wines you might expect to find in a bourgeois family in Scandinavia at this time, but also from which countries they imported wine. Johan Sigismund Schulin (1694-1750) had worked in the Executive Board of generalpostamtet (the Post) in Denmark, he was secretary of the German Kancelli etc and finished his career as a contemporary equivalent of foreign minister.

In the first note 504 bottles are quoted: 9 ½ bottles of unfamiliar wine, three samples (a bit unsure of what is meant by sample but it’s not bottles) of Madeira, three samples of Mosel and Rhinsk wine, one Rhone wine, one Burgundy wine and ½ bottle of cherry wine, 83 bottles of English beer and 6 ½ bottle juice. In addition to this there are three oksehoveder (a measure) and 2 ahn and an one anchor rhinsk wine, translated this should be about 700 liters of red wine and 340 liters of Rhine wine. On the list is also mentioned usquebak which is synonymous with whiskey. Among the types of wine are notes of red wines, Pontac, Hermitage, Burgundier, Riinsk wine, French wine, Muscatvin, Samosvin, Mathers, Cote Roti, Constanze, Capvine, Hvid Capvin, Ungarsk wine, Syracuservin, Florentiervin, Peter Semeng etc.

I found this translation table on the measurement oksehoved from 1647 for wine (obviously different dimensions for different products) = 1 ½ Amme = 6 anchor = 240 potter = about 232.5 litres.

A quick glance at these facts shows that there are wines from several regions and countries – many of which still today are among the major regions. Wines from South Africa – the Constanza is there as well – that’s the winery that produced the wine in the bottle found outside of Stockholm. It is mentioned that there is both red and white Contstanz. The white sweet wine was the more famous. In the second half of the 1700s, the Constanz wine, and then the white sweet in particular, became hugely popular among the European aristocracy and was so until the 1880s when wine production in South Africa was hit by phylloxera.

Later on in the documents one can find several other interesting comments such as wines from more other regions, such as Margaux and Médoc, and names of wine merchants, such as Toyon. In total 2799 bottles made its way through the cellar between 1744-1808.

Let’s goback some years in time to the Swedish Middle Ages (1050-1523 AD). In Hans Hildebrands book Sverige Medletiden (Sweden the Middle Ages) it is stated the following on beer and wine; Beer plays the biggest role and can be called the national drink of the time, but wine is also mentioned. The first mention is regarding the funeral of Birger Persson in 1328 AD when three kinds of wine were served; white wine, Rhine wine and red wine from La Rochelle. During the 1500s there are references to wines from Klarethe (Claret, Clairet = Bordeaux), Malmarsey (possibly Italy and wines from grapes Malvasia), from Romani in Spain, Odersberg in Schleisen and from Thorn in Germany. The Wine imports in 1539 were nearly 50 000 litres – compared to Systembolaget’s (the Swedish Monopoloy) sales of wine in 2010 that amounted to 182 471 261 liters (Link in Swedish). In the encyclopedia Medeltidens ABC (the ABC of the Middle Ages), it is said that wine was imported by the aristocracy and the church, the majority of the wine came from Germany. From this book you can also get an idea of the price of wine at 14th century in Sweden. The wine from La Rochelle that were served at the funeral in 1328 costed 12 mark penningar per barrel (ca 150 litres), while the Rhine wine costed about 8 mark penningar per barrel. Compare this with the salary of a craftsman at the time which was about 45 mark penningar/year + food and drink or a farm labourer who earned about one mark penningar money for the summer and half a mark penningar during the winter months at the time. Wine was a luxury product and not for the common man.

The wines are usually shipped in heavy wooden barrels, which made long-distance wine trade in principle only possible through waterways. The long journeys often made the delicate wine go bad. Because of this it was often seasoned with ginger, cloves and or nutmeg. Another popular combination was Klaret and Rhine wine seasoned with sugar, honey, cinnamon, ginger, cardamom and cloves. Then the wine was trickled from the spices, King Gustav Vasa’s (1496-1560 AD) court had it’s own brewer for this, Kilian Vintappare. Another type of spiced wine was Lutendank, a spiced wine mixed with milk (I’m pretty sure I don’t want to taste that!).

There are written sources and archaeological materials that indicate that wine was imported to Scandinavia before the Middle ages. During the Viking Age one can guess that the Vikings came in contact with wine during their journeys to Greece, France and Spain etc, but also through the travels through today’s Russia to the Black Sea and back. When Sweden became Christian during the late Viking Age and the early Middle Ages the wine import became institutionalized as the Church needed wine for communion.

The history of wine begins, however, long before this – the oldest traces have been dated to about 6000 BC. It is believed that the oldest wines were red and the white wines were added later. An early exampel of white wine is that found in amphoraes in Tutankhamen (death cirka1339 BC) tomb. As wine became a commodity it had to be transported and sealed. In antiquity they were transported in amphorae, which were sealed with pitch or resin. Sometimes they were provided with a layer of olive oil on top of the wine’s surface, as in the German example below. They also stirred down different spices and sulfur in order to extend the life of the wine. During the Roman Empire they began to store and transport the wine in barrels (wooden barrels) besides the traditional way of amphorae.

©Historisches Museum der Pfalz

That wine was transported in antiquity is obvious – there are plenty of amphorae around the Mediterranean as proof of that. The oldest complete wine bottle with contents is in the Historical Museum of Palatinate in Germany. It is a ca 1600 years old Roman wine bottle with dolphin-shaped handles, dating to 325 AD. It was found in a Roman stone sarcophagus during excavations 1867. Amazingly, there were and still is some liquid remaining in it, two thirds is viscous and probably some kind of olive oil poured in for preservative reasons. They have also found traces of honey. Underneath this was residues of wine. The contents were analysed in 1916 by senior inspector Schmidt and Professor Halenke. The result showed that it most likely contained wine together with olive oil. Further analysis was done in1934 and 1937/1938 by Professor Grüß and Professor von Stockmann in Berlin. Their findings were never published and was lost, unfortunately, during World War II. The museum’s former director, Dr. Karl Schulz wrote in the 50’s that during the analysis they found scent of aromatic wine. The taste is unknown – no one has tasted the wine. There are currently no plans for new analysis.

The wine bottle can be seen in the “Weinmuseum” as part of the permanent exhibition at the Historical Museum of the Palatinate in Speyer. The image is reproduced with the authorization of the museum.

Link to the Historical museum of the Palatinate (Historisches Museum der Pfalz)

A big thanks goes to the Historisches Museum der Pfalz for information and accessrights to the image.

Magnus Reuterdahl


Hjort, Karen 2003. En fornem vinlaelder. Siden Saxo 2003:01. Danmark

Hildebrand, Hans (1983 nytryck). Sveriges Medeltid, del 2, Städerna.

Medeltidens ABC

Muntliga källor

Claes Pettersson, Jönköpings läns museum

Ludger Tekampe, Historisches Museum der Pfalz

A bottle from the past

Detta inlägg finns på svenska på min blogg Aqua Vitae – välkommen!

Anna Oswaldson Vin & Sprithistoriska Museet showing the bottle

The other day I posted a story on my wine blog Aqua Vitae, this an English version of that post, though a bit shortened,  about an odd find. It’s not every day I find common denominators between my interest in wine and in archaeology – this was such an occasion!

At the Historical Museum of Wines and Spirits (Vin & Sprithistoriska museet) in Stockholm an interesting bottle surfaced. It was originally found in the 1940s by a diver and later donated to the museum. The bottle is complete and from the 1790s – interestingly enough with a seal which reads: CON STANTIA WYN which makes an identification possible. The bottle comes from the South African wineries Groot Constantia. Groot Constantia is the oldest winery in South Africa founded in 1685. When I did some research on the winery I found a link to Sweden – in 1712 it was bought by a Swedish adventurer, a captain Oloff Bergh and his wife Anna de Koningh. Oloff Bergh was born in Gothenburg in 1643 and got eleven children with his Anna who took over the winery in 1716 when Oloff died. She managed it until her death in 1734. Here ends the Swedish connection until the bottle was refound at the museum. The most plausible explanation is that it came to Sweden via the East India Company and ended up on the bottom of the sea in the Stockholm archipelago.

A nice little story – it could very well end there, but now I want to taste the wine – of course today’s wines haven’t all that much in common with the wines of the 1790s but still its produced in the same place. The wine is normally available in Sweden but the importer seems to be out of stock at the moment.

I’ll come back to this issue as it opened up for several interesting questions and it became obvious to me that my knowledge of the history of wine have some big gaps. I was oblivious to the fact that wine was produced in South Africa at that time, that there were an export market from the new world at this point and that they were shipped in bottles – I believed they be shipped in oak barrels and tapped on bottle on site. There are finds of similar bottles, or rather pieces of bottles in the USA and in Germany so its not a single bottle. Well I’ll get back to you on this as I find more background material.

Magnus Reuterdahl

I’ll be digging in Stockholm

Got unemployed last week but things are all ready brighter as I’ll start working on a new project on Wednesday next week for Sweden’s oldest private archaeology company Arkeologikonsult, in the business since 1988.

I’ll be working on an excavation, in Stockholm, on a gravefield dated to the late Viking Age/early Middle Ages the coming three or four weeks.

It will be great as I’ll work with Johan Klange, whom I’ve been working on the Yangshaoproject, and with osteologist/archaeologist Leif Johnsson, whom I worked with in Kronoberg and with Arkeologicentrum, among others.

Magnus Reuterdahl

Heritage board’s course on Historic Landscapes day 2

Today we visited Västra Syninge (Syninge west) a farm with several interesting features, with the help of a map from 1630s and a modern map one can trace a lot of the 17th century landscape – a farm that has moved, across the road?, traces of fossilized fields in form of clearing cairns field edges. Lots of interesting discussions concerning how to interpret these traces, for example their age, how to classify them, what scientific and pedagogic value they have and so fourth. The most rewarding discussion, according to me, was that concerning the remains of an earlier farm. According to Swedish Cultural heritage act, a monument or remain classified as ancient monument/remain must be permanently abandoned. This particular farmstead is permanently abandoned and can be traced back at least to medieval times. On the historic map are two adjacent farms, of which this is one, the other is still where it once was and in use. As the remains are a part of the remaining farm the area isn’t abandoned – how it categorizes relic?

This might seem as an easy question but isn’t, should a part be classed as ancient monument? That would be as putting a dead mans hand on it making it impossible or next to impossible for the farmer to use. Should we class it as something else with another or lower protection risking that it gets destroyed or are there other ways? Lots of interesting questions that has no straight answer.

I’m sorry to say I have no photos of the area, as it was bit rainy and several of the remains were very difficult to photo.

After this we went to Finsta – visiting the, assumed, birth place of  Birgitta (Bridget) Birgerstotter or Saint Bridget (Birgitta) of Sweden in 1303,  a more likely place is Fresta,  according to ledgend Birgitta had her first holy vision here in a place called Birgittas Bönegrotta (a cave in which she prayed).  Here we discussed the importance of accuracy, it is more or less clear that Birgitta wasn’t born here and therefore didin’t have her first vision here – – So how do that influence on the historic value of this site? Does it loose or reduces its historical value if Birgitta was not born here? Or does the tradition in itself a historical background which gives it a historical value? I think the latter – over long time people has connected this place with Birgitta, and come here as a pilgrimage or as interested tourists and that makes the place a site of interest.

So not to lure people to Finsta – there are no remains of the medieval Finsta that Birger Persson , Birgittas father, owned though there is a small cave that tradition call’s Birgittas. But if you do visit don’t miss the wonderful Iron Age grave fields just a few hundred meters away and the medieval church.

Magnus Reuterdahl

Skokloster castle

Yesterday me and my fianceé visited Skokloster castle, ca 65 km from  Stockholm, by lake Mälaren. The castle is beautifully situated on the waterfront and the roads leading up to the castle are surrounded by old farms and crofts – a treat in it self. The castle is mainly built during the years 1654-1676 by Carl Gustaf Wrangel, but the work never really ends on building such as this.

The castle is more or less built upon an earlier Cistercian nunnery  convent, Sko kloster, which gave named the castle. The monastery was founded in the 1230s, not much is left of the nunnery but the Abbey is situated just next to the castle and the there is the Stone house. The church was consecrated in the 1280s, it has been rebuilt several times and its present appearance came during a renovation in the 1620s.

The Stone house is  a big stone house just next to the castle, its oldest parts are from the 14th century, in form of a basment. The house has since been extended and changed several times and today’s appearance is from the 1740s when Erik Brahe built out and rebuild the house .

Around the castle is a park, in the French style, which is lined with impressive avenues.

The avenue trees are old, crocked and bent, as you can see in these pictures.

The castle and the church is open for visitors, I will return with pictures of the interior in a coming post.

Magnus Reuterdahl

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